|555 monostable output, a single pulse|
|555 monostable circuit with manual trigger|
|time period, T = 1.1 × R1 × C1|
T = time period in seconds (s)
R1 = resistance in ohms ()
C1 = capacitance in farads (F)
The maximum reliable time period is about 10 minutes.
Why 1.1? The capacitor charges to 2/3 = 67% so it is a bit longer than the time constant (R1 × C1) which is the time taken to charge to 63%.
- Choose C1 first (there are relatively few values available).
- Choose R1 to give the time period you need. R1 should be in the range 1k to 1M, so use a fixed resistor of at least 1k in series if R1 is variable.
- Beware that electrolytic capacitor values are not accurate, errors of at least 20% are common.
- Beware that electrolytic capacitors leak charge which substantially increases the time period
if you are using a high value resistor - use the formula as only a very rough guide!
For example the Timer Project should have a maximum time period of 266s (about 4½ minutes), but many electrolytic capacitors extend this to about 10 minutes!
Monostable operationThe timing period is triggered (started) when the trigger input (555 pin 2) is less than 1/3 Vs, this makes the output high (+Vs) and the capacitor C1 starts to charge through resistor R1. Once the time period has started further trigger pulses are ignored. The threshold input (555 pin 6) monitors the voltage across C1 and when this reaches 2/3 Vs the time period is over and the output becomes low. At the same time discharge (555 pin 7) is connected to 0V, discharging the capacitor ready for the next trigger.
The reset input (555 pin 4) overrides all other inputs and the timing may be cancelled at any time by connecting reset to 0V, this instantly makes the output low and discharges the capacitor. If the reset function is not required the reset pin should be connected to +Vs.
|Power-on reset or|
Power-on reset or triggerIt may be useful to ensure that a monostable circuit is reset or triggered automatically when the power supply is connected or switched on. This is achieved by using a capacitor instead of (or in addition to) a push switch as shown in the diagram. The capacitor takes a short time to charge, briefly holding the input close to 0V when the circuit is switched on. A switch may be connected in parallel with the capacitor if manual operation is also required.
This arrangement is used for the trigger in the Timer Project.
The resistor between the trigger (555 pin 2) and +Vs ensures that the trigger is normally high (+Vs).